LosMythologyanycivilizationit reflects your core values, your greatest fears and your greatest hopes, and the same goes for the mythology of yore.Persia🇧🇷 Great heroes like Karsasp, Thraetaona, and Rustum express particularly Persian values, but like all mythical figures, they are recognizable to people of all ages.culturalas models whose best qualities are worth emulating.
This also applies to many living beings.ancient persian mythology, the forces of good and evil, as they touch on universal concerns of human existence through the specific details of their characters, who symbolize various fears and possibilities.
The stories that form the basis of Persian mythology derive from early Persian religious beliefs. These and similar stories from all cultures are now referred to as "mythology" only because the theological paradigm has shifted and a universe of many gods, spirits, angels and demons has been replaced by the monotheistic or atheistic model. 🇧🇷 In their day, however, they would have served the same basic purpose as the scriptures of others.Religiontoday: teaching important spiritual and cultural values and assuring people of order and purpose in an often chaotic and frightening world.
The stories were passed down orally over the centuries until they were written down as part of the religious tradition.zoroastrianismon themAvesta(Zoroastrian script) during thesassanidsPeriod (224-651 AD) In the reigns of kingsI like II(309-379 n. Chr.) JKosrau I(531-579 AD) and were later fully addressed by the Persian poet AbolqasemFernando(l. 940-1020 n. Chr.) in his epic workShahnameh("The Book of Kings"), written between 977-1010 AD when Ferdousí wasWrite, monotheism in the form ofIslamhad replacedancient persian religion, but his work still resonated with audiences and continues to do so.
ancient persian religion
The central vision of ancient Persian religion was that of a universal struggle between the forces of good and evil, order and chaos.
The central vision of ancient Persian religion was that of a universal struggle between the forces of good and evil, order and chaos. This same theme is, to some extent, the basis of virtually all religions in the ancient world, but for the Persians it meant the meaning of existence. There were two opposing forces at work in the universe, and whichever side they took would determine their earthly journey and their destiny in the afterlife.
On the side of good was onePantheonof gods and spirits presided over by the supreme deityAura Mazda, the creator of all things visible and invisible, and in contrast Angra was Mainyu (also given asAhriman), the spirit of evil, chaos and confusion with his legion of demons and a variety of supernatural (and natural) creatures and beasts. Ahura Mazda created humans with free will to choose the path they would follow and if one chose the right one, one would live well and find paradise in the afterlife, if one did wrong one would live a life of confusion and strife and be thrown into the world. 🇧🇷 agony aftertod.
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The creatures that appear in Persian mythology almost all fall into one of these two camps, with the exception of the jinn (also known as jinn and better known as jinn) and the peri (fairies), who defy easy definition, as their actions seem more neutral. in papers. dependent on circumstances rather than loyalty to a specific cause. While there are many different mythological creatures in Persian tales, twelve are representative of the thematic set:
- you are a bird
- Chamrosh e Kamak
- Al (also credited as Hal)
- Suroosh, a Daena
- Genius (Djinn)
- Azhi Dahaka (Azhdaha)
All these entities have influenced daily human life in one way or another. Some, like Peri or Al, were considered constants in one's life, while others, like Simurgh or Azhi Dahaka, represented a universal paradigm that shaped the present. In one way or another, the natural and supernatural forces represented by the characters were recognized as very real, and measures were taken to ward off the bad guys and show due respect to those who only wanted the best for humanity.
The latter included dogs, which embodied the protective aspects of the deity and figured in representations of some of the most important benevolent creatures. Dogs ward off evil spirits, comfort, guide and guard valuable possessions. They were considered so important that their role as guardians was maintained when the Prophet reinvented the primitive religion of the Persians.Zoroaster(ca. 1500-1000 BC), who kept them as guardians ofPonte Chinvat, the route across the chasm between the world of the living and the world of the dead. Like all other animals, the dog owes its existence to the life-giving energies of one of Ahura Mazda's earliest creations, the primordial bull.
Gavaevodata is the original bull (also known as the uniquely bred bull, the original steer, the original steer) that was among Ahura Mazda's earliest creations. The Supreme Deity first created the sky, a sphere, and then filled it with water and separated the water from the land planted with various kinds of vegetation, and then made the primordial bull, which was brilliant white and shone like the moon. Gavaevodata was so beautiful that he attracted the attention of Angra Mainyu, who killed him and was then transported to the moon and purified; from his purified seed came all the animals that would nourish and fertilize the earth's vegetation. After animals were created, Ahura Mazda created humans and then fire, but Gavaevodata was the first unique being on Earth and established the high value the Persians placed on animals.
Simurgh, known as the bird-dog, was a giant winged creature with a dog's head, a peacock's body and a lion's claws, sometimes depicted with a human face. Living high in the Alburz Mountains, Simurgh existed for 1,700 years before falling into a fire of his own making and dying, only to be (like the last phoenix) resurrected. Simurgh was believed to possess great wisdom and featured prominently in the story of the hero Zal, whom she raised, and the birth of her son Rustum (also known as Rostom and Rustam), the greatest Persian hero. She taught Zal how to perform a difficult cesarean delivery and also taught him herbal medicines for healing. In early myths, she is known as Saena, the Great Hawk, perched in the upper branches of the Tree of All Seeds, flapping her wings and sending seeds into the ground and across the world to find their way to earth. 🇧🇷
you are a bird
The Huma Bird is a later version of Simurgh, who was said to fly over the earth forever and never land, and if his shadow fell on a person, that person would be blessed and happy all the days of his life. Huma was responsible for legitimizing royalty and his image gained prominence in thePersepolis, a magnificent ritual capital ofaquemenida persian kingdomstarting fromDarius I(the Great, r. 522-486 BC). The huma was considered the most sacred bird and hurting it or even trying to hurt it brought great bad luck. However, if anyone saw or thought they saw the bird flying, it was a great blessing. Over time, huma came to symbolize the concept of elevation and enlightenment. Like Simurgh and the later Phoenix, Huma was believed to live an immensely long life, dying in its own flames and then spawning itself.
Chamrosh e Kamak
Chamrosh and Kamak are also giant birds; Chamrosh is a force for good and Kamak for evil. Chamrosh has the body of a dog with the head and wings of an eagle. She lives under the tree of all seeds, gathering those that fall when Saena-Simurgh flaps her wings and scatters them in the wind and rain clouds that deposit the seeds across the land. Chamrosh is also a protective entity, defending the Persians from outside invaders, particularly attackers who attack and drive them away. Kamak plays the exact opposite role, feeding on the Persians and their livestock and bringing destruction. Kamak is so large that his outstretched wings kept out rain and brought drought to the land, and in the ensuing chaos he easily destroyed human and animal prey for food. The Persian hero Karsasp finally kills Kamak by continually showering him with arrows.
The Al were invisible unless they wished to be seen, so only their effects alerted humans to their existence.
El Al is a nocturnal predator that feeds on newborns and was among the most feared evil spirits. She was usually depicted as an old woman with sharp teeth, long shaggy hair, and claws that could also injure or kill pregnant women.Womenand knocked when mother and child slept. El Al was part of a larger group of demons known as the Umm Naush, Night Raiders, who in turn were a subgroup of the larger variety of demons known askhrafstra- harmful spirits or demons - who disturbed and destroyed lives. Al, like the otherkhrafstra, they were invisible unless they wished to be seen, so most people were only aware of their existence by their effect. the generalkhrafstraThey often manifested in nature, taking the form of wasps, ants, predators, rodents, spiders, and similar creatures.
The manticore ("man-eater") is a fearsome beast with a man's head, a lion's body, and a scorpion's tail (or, alternatively, a tail ending in poisonous thorns that it shoots at its prey). He believed himself invincible because his skin was so thick that no weapon could penetrate it and he moved faster than any other living thing on earth. The manticore could kill anything but elephants, and it took a special delight in humans, devouring them whole and leaving no traces, except sometimes splatters of blood. He lurked in the long uncultivated pastures, far from the towns and cities.citiesand attacked without warning, except that it sometimes seems to have been heralded by a growl that sounded like a loud trumpet. If someone disappeared from the community and had no idea what had happened to him, it was considered the work of a manticore.
Peris are adorable little winged creatures, neither good nor bad, who love to play pranks but can also be useful. They were considered spirits imprisoned in fairy form to atone for past sin or sins, but they were not considered immortal and certainly were not human souls. A peri can deliver a message from the gods or, alternatively, trick someone into believing something false or an outright lie. They appear in folklore primarily as pranksters hiding objects or tricking them, and their most popular pranks would be the ancient Persian equivalent of hiding a person's car keys. Later Muslim Arabs elevated them to benevolent spirits and served the same purpose as angels, conveying messages from the divine.
Suroosh, a Daena
Suroosh symbolized Daena's protection and self-awareness.
Suroosh is the angel standing on the Chinvat Bridge and Daena is the Holy Virgin working alongside him. Suroosh symbolized Daena's protection and self-awareness. Both support the newly deceased on their path from life to death. After the soul left the body, it was supposed to remain on earth for three days while the gods made a decision about life and final destiny. The soul then approached the Chinvat Bridge guarded by two dogs that would welcome the justified soul and drive away the wicked. Daena would appear and to the justified soul she would be a beautiful young woman, while to the damned she would appear as an ugly witch. Suroosh would protect the soul from demonic attacks as it crossed the bridge to meet the angel Rashnu, the judge of the dead, who would decide whether the soul would go to heaven in the House of Songs or hell in the House of Lies.
Djinn were supernatural beings who, like the Peri, were neither immortals nor human souls. They were believed to inhabit lonely places outside cities, such as caves or hills, and had the power to influence human thought and action. Like the Peri, they were neutral in the struggle between good and evil and seemed to base their actions on the circumstances of the moment. Jinn can fulfill a person's greatest wishes but distort the end result tragically or at least negatively, but he could just as easily fulfill an individual's wishes by making their dreams come true. They were generally viewed with suspicion and wore amulets to ward off their influence. They are best known for Persian work.A thousand nights and one night(also known asarabian nights), where geniuses play a key role. They were also, like the Peri, received by Muslim Arabs as neutral, albeit potentially dangerous, supernatural forces.
Azhi Dahaka was the great three-headed dragon created from the lies of Angra Mainyu to thwart any positive dynamics in the world and create chaos. Continue-cobras(Azhi) are frequent figures in Persian mythology as the personification of evil and disorder, and Azhi Dahaka was the most fearsome of them all. He is described as having a thousand senses, allowing him to be aware of any potential threat and able to defend against it, as well as knowing where his prey is at all times. Believing himself invincible, he was finally defeated only by the great Persian hero Thraetaona, who captured and imprisoned him and kept him in chains to the ends of the world, where he was slain by the resurrected Karsasp, Kamak's assassin.
These characters, and many others like them, personified people's everyday fears, such as losing a child (the Als), or an unexplained death or disappearance (the Manticore), or why life events could go so wrong when everything seemed be doing well. doing so well. Alternatively, entities like Suroosh and Daena, or creatures like Simurgh, gave humans confidence that they were cared for, that someone was looking out for them and protecting their interests.
A notable example of this is the as-yet-unmentioned Karakadann/Koresk creature, better known as the unicorn, a shy and elusive animal that keeps to itself in remote places. Its horn was considered a powerful antidote to poison, and the sight of a horn is believed to bring good luck. Even if you've never seen a koresk, you can still hope that one day they'll see you and all your problems will be solved in a sudden supernatural stroke of luck.
Great heroes like Thraetaona or Karsasp or Rustum, who defeated the forces of chaos, served the same purpose, upholding the principles of goodness, justice and order in an uncertain world and giving people hope in these ideals.Triumphabout selfishness, cruelty and chaos. One of the core values ofancient persian cultureIt was a narrative, and through their rich mythology they created some of the most memorable characters and stories in world history that have captivated audiences ever since.
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