Apache Religious Traditions encyclopedia.com (2023)

APACHE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS. The Lipan Apaches are one of the Apache tribes of the American Southwest described in the general Apache entry. Of all the Apaches, the Lipans spread farthest eastward, reaching as far as the Mississippi. The Lipan primarily hunted buffalo until this was no longer possible due to the imminent extinction of the bison. During the 19th century, Lipans spread across Texas, mostlyNew Mexico, and adjacent areas of Mexico. Between 1680 and 1730, Apache buffalo hunters roamed Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska and Oklahoma. The extent of Lipan Apache territory meant that some bands lacked contact with others, and frequent interaction with outside groups led to variations in Lipan material culture and worldview. The leadership of Lipan's Apaches was invaluable in the emergence of traditions that relied heavily on the religious use of peyote. Lipanese relationships with indigenous peoples to the south of their range were instrumental in introducing the religious use of peyote, and Lipanese relationships with buffalo hunters to the north were essential in transmitting the peyote religion to native tribes. americanNew Mexicoby Oklahoma.

Lipan Apache Buffalo Hunters: Origins and Migrations

The Lipan oral history of New Mexico states that the first Lipan tipi was placed far north (Begay, 2003), and the Lipan oral history of Texas states that the people came from the north (Romero Jr., 2000). In 1940, while documenting Lipan oral history, Morris Opler recorded claims of a northern origin for the Lipanians and reports of an exodus from the forest to the plains. However, the oral history of Lipan in New Mexico strongly maintains an origin in the Sierra Madre de Chihuahua Mountains (Begay, 2003), from the 'IsanorteaKlThat onesh, um ser divino cujo rosto é manchado de branco. Essa crença é um dos pilares das histórias de criação Apache na Reserva Indígena Apache Mescalero e permanece central para a cerimônia de maioridade das mulheres, a Cerimônia do Fogo. Apesar das diferenças de opinião sobre se as origens dos Lipans são do norte ou do sul, há um consenso de que os Lipans viveram nas planícies do norte desde o início como caçadores de búfalos. Isso é consistente com a opinião dos linguistas de que a língua atabascana se originou no norte do Canadá e no Alasca.

Linguistic, archaeological, and historical evidence shows that the Lipan Apache's origins are embedded in a long-range buffalo hunting tradition.North Americafor more than 11,000 years and shaped by tipi rings, buffalo slaughterhouses, archery technology and cairns burned in thegreat plans. Between 1450 and 1725, Lipanian ancestors occupied a vast territorial homeland spanning the buffalo plains of Texas, eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. Before the European invasion, Apache buffalo hunters participated in trade networks that included the peoples of the Southwest and the peoples of the Caddoan Plains. This system was later disrupted by pressure from Spanish colonialists and the involvement of Apache buffalo hunters in patterns of violence and slavery that culminated in the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 in New Mexico. These changes led Apache buffalo hunters to become mounted hunters and rangers who forged anti-colonial alliances with the indigenous peoples of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico, alliances that produced specific forms of cultural affiliation. However, the Lipans eventually left Texas and Mexico to join the Mescaleros and Chiracahuas in New Mexico. In Mescalero, the Lipan religion continued to be part of daily life on the reserve.

Lipan-Religion im Mescalero-Apache-Reservat

According to Meredith Begay, a healer on the Mescalero Apache Reservation of Lipan, Mescalero and Chiracahua descent, the Apache religion is based on a spiritual sense that Apaches live with respect. Begay referred to this as a sixth sense, leading Lipans to treat the sacred in a specific Apache way. Importantly, Lipans should try to understand the stories told about the way people act and how people should act and behave accordingly. All Apaches carry this spiritual respect for the Creator, the four cardinal points, Mother Earth and "certain deities in the sky, like the North Star, the Sun, the Moon and some of the other stars that are there" (Begay, 2004). . . These deities care about people and therefore must be worshipped. The desire to build right relationships according to the stories gives direction to the lives of the Lipan people and a means by which Lipan cultivate knowledge and the power to heal. By combining stories with personal visions and actions, medicine is acquired. Medicine is for the benefit of the family and the tribe, and when a person seeks and uses such power for personal gain at the expense of others, it is understood to be witchcraft or abuse of power.

Lipan's account of the creation of the earth includes the prophets Slayer of Foes and his brother Water Son and his mother 'IsanorteaKlThat onesh aka changing woman. 'IT'SanorteaKlThat oneThe sch part of the creation story is the template for apache puberty ceremony for girls. Special ceremonies like this are times when families are invited to bring their medicine in the form of music and the spiritual work of preparation and ceremonial participation. The sacred narrations are not just ceremonial guides, but an integral part of teaching the basics of Lipan life.

For example, Child of Water represents the "right hand" and the loving path, while Slayer of the Enemy symbolizes the "left hand" that is not so loving. Child of Water offers sanctuary and redemption for humans and animals, while Killer-of-Enemies transforms animals from destroyers and killers of humans into purveyors of meat and clothing, making sacred covenants between animals and humans. Mrs. Begay explained that in a blessing for Daniel Romero Castro III, who was about to be sent to Iraq, he assured that because he knew he could go to the desert, “with the serpent, with the Scorpion, the Spiders spoke with the serpent , to any other living being who wants to,I don't knowPlease look at him with your right hand."

(Video) Naa'dahéõdé: The Mescalero Apache People - The People of the Mescal - New Mexico

The Lipan oral traditions and the associated rituals and games not only teach the Lipan how to behave, but also explain a system of correspondences between human and animal behaviors and attitudes that has its roots in the time when Lipan animals talked and acted like humans. . The moccasin game reflects how the sun broke loose for the first time after a lipan bet and lit up the earth. The game is played with a "buffalo shoe", which is the ball placed over the buffalo's heel. Four holes are dug in the ground, songs are sung for each animal and bird, and one person hides the ball. Players form two teams and bet all night on who will find the ball. The center of the cassava flower is used to earn points. Mrs. Begay explained its importance:

Before the hobo game, the world was dark, it was completely dark.So what happened was the big animals could see in the dark and the small animals couldn't see in the dark. The only time they saw it was when lightning struck.and they were slain by the great wild beasts. So they got together, both sides, and said that we are going to play a game with boots and whoever wins will run the country. When the big guys win it can be dark and when the little guys win they call it daylight.Then the game started; They started to hide the ball (buffalo shoe) and the last one to find it was a little animal and that's when the sun came out. The big animals got angry and started to fight. The giant was the last to die. And then the giant fell who died[there are] four mountains where it fell. Everyone in this shoe game, whatever they do, is still in it today. However, they paid with themselves; everything changed from the moment the sun went down and stayed with them.[Before] they understood each other, they could talk to plants, stones and everythingit stopped there. (2004)

During the moccasin game, all the animals did crazy things that changed them forever. For example, when the fight started in the morning, the bear turned its paws back and the snakethat had many legs then, like a centipedeall its limbs were thrown. Coyote was already capable of his tricks. While the other animals tried to win for their respective teams, Coyote sneaked in the back, switching sides during the night, trying to get to the winning side. This wobbly attitude and behavior stuck with him and is a central element of Lipan Coyote's stories, which admonish people, especially men, for their selfish and irresponsible behavior. In addition to spiritual insights and warnings about the consequences of bad behavior, the stories also offer positive role models that illustrate proper leadership, participation, and etiquette in everyday life. Lipan leaders are constantly reminded of the need for correct behavior and the dangers of transgression. Likewise, other family and social roles are defined in the stories, and Lipan is strongly encouraged to fulfill these roles, showing appropriate behavior and respecting important taboos.

Important for Lipan's spiritual life are medicines that satisfy both spiritual and medical needs. The collection of medicines is part of the preparation for the religious work of blessing and healing. Medicine, in this sense, is part of a system of kinship relationships that a lipan maintains with the celestial, elemental, animal and vegetable beings to which he corresponds and summons through the appropriate arrangement of words, actions and objects. For example, Apaches always carry reed pollen in case they have a similar vision or experience, and are said to bless themselves and the place where the sacred event took place. Thus, the simple fact of carrying a pollen bag and knowing how to make a pollen blessing are ways for Apaches to show their respect for the sacred.

Pollen is a central part of Lipan's religious life. According to Begay, "Pollen is used because it is so light and fine that it gives us light. So pollen is used to bless everything. An Apache doesn't go anywhere without pollen, they always carry it in their bag” (2004). Other important remedies are tobacco, sage, osha, eagle feathers and the ashes of a clean fire. Begay comments: “Cigarette smoke, tobacco, is part of our religion[and] the sage medicine of burning the sage, dyeing it and all that." He also points to the importance of medicinal herbs such ashello equida, known in Mexico astuchupat, and in English as osha, bearroot or hotroot. Ash can help peoplediko's son, a state of anxiety or trauma often accompanied by nightmares and sleepwalking. According to Begay,diko's soncomes to people's minds "because they saw something crazy, or did something crazy during the day, or something scared them so badly that they got up and left that night" (2004). But like all blessings and healings, 99% is in the mind and spirit and only 1% comes from outside.

It is important to understand Lipan's idea of ​​the dead. Zelda Yazza, daughter of Mrs. Begay, comments in unpublished notes: “The dead go to the other side of the river until four days after their death. When they go there, they mix with these other people and become enemies. Traditionally, it is important to bury people within four days.” This belief has a lot to do with Lipan avoidance and even fear of the dead. However, this attitude has been altered over time by Christian beliefs and practices.

(Video) Apache | Wikipedia audio article

Lipan Apache Religious Use of Peyote

In the mid-18th century, Spanish documents attribute the religious use of peyote to Apache buffalo hunters in connection with its reputation as a central element in anti-colonial action and warfare. Indigenous peoples who live in missions near the peyote gardens, from present-day Coahuila to Nuevo Lefrom ton and in Tamaulipas, constitute an important basis for the use of peyote inmitoten(a term used by Spanish chroniclers to refer to Native American spiritual gatherings and festivals). Father Juan Larios, who founded a mission south of Lomer in 1673noa de los Peyotes (Peyote Hills) near Villa Unifrom ton, Coahuila, identified the local mounds as gardens from which Native Americans gathered peyote for their cropsmitoand ceremonial (Steck, 1932). 1674St Bernardde la Candela was founded by the Catujano, Milijae and Tilijai Indians known for their traditionsmitoten(Wade, 1998). We will seefrom todidn't describe itmitoas the most common and common hobby of the native peoples of northeastern Mexico. Youfrom ton reported that American Indians collected peyote and gathered around a fire to sing vocablos (words without linguistic meaning), shake gourds filled with stones collected from anthills, dance, and give gifts in the morning (Lefrom ton, Chapa and Zamora, 1961, p. 24). All these practices are traditions in thenative american church.

The union of the Missionary Indians of northeastern Mexico with peyote andmitoprovides important evidence explaining how the Lipan Apaches adopted the religious use of peyote. Lipan oral tradition identifies the Carrizo Nation as the source of the rite, which involves the religious use of peyote. Historical documents show that, in 1755, the Carrizo groups had ties to the anti-colonial Apache Alliance, lived in neighboring missions, and reportedly engaged in the religious use of peyote with Apaches and Lipans. On April 14, 1770, Father Lorenzo de la Penortea reports that Apaches and Julimenortewe are lucky onemitowith peyote in the Peyote Mission. In 1828, Jean Berlandier reported that the coastal peoples of the Tonkawas and Lipans still used peyote in their feasts. Nearly fifty years later, Frederick Buckelev reported that the Lipan Apaches shared amitowith Kickapoo in 1865.

After 1865, religious use of peyote began to spread outside of Texas, leading to the formation of peyote.native american church. Widespread adoption of religious use of peyote through major Comanche influenceParker, who learned a ceremonial form of peyote from the Lipan Apaches, is known. The Comanche Quahadis led byParker, learned fromso work(as the Comanche call peyote) by the Lipan-Apaches sometime before 1878. The oral history of the Kiowa-Apache and Arapaho is consistent with this understanding. Nelson Big Bow, a Kiowa, stated: “Quanah Parker brought Lipan Apache from Mescalero to be executedpeyoteReunions". These Lipans were identified as Chivato, Pinero and Escaona and brought to Cache, Oklahoma by Quanah Parker. In addition to religious use of peyote by the Indian Church, there is evidence of surviving religious use of peyote by Cuelgahen Nde Lipan Apaches in Three Rivers, Texas .

Santos Peralez Castro, interviewed in 1999, recalled amitoheld in 1956, which included the religious use of peyote:

I remember my mom and dad used to call himMiyote, it was a green cactus. I remember that my mother and father invited their friends, my mother cooked a lot. Before the guests arrived they gave a lot of corn, they used a lot of corn and we all ground it and made tamales and tortillas with the corn and she cooked beans and rice. The friends made a circle and a big fire and they formed a circle around the fire and all their friends were in the circle. All the friends formed a circle, all the adults formed a circle. They all smoked this big pipe and went around in a circle to smoke it and after they smoked they passed a little basket and ate the peyote and ate all night and sang and danced all night until the next day. I remember the kids weren't allowed into the circle and we would sleep all night and wake up the next morning to eat, I remember.


As with most Native American religions, Lipan spiritual life is not limited to church or festivals, but is part of a respectful way of life prescribed by oral tradition and proper relationships and behavior towards sacred objects and deities, and life guides. family and tribe.

(Video) The Apache People & Nation: Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western

See too

North American Indians, article on Southwest Indians.


Wow, Meredith. Enrique Maestas interview. digital recording. Mescalero, N.Mex., November 15, 2003.

Wow, Meredith. Enrique Maestas interview. tape recording. Mescalero, N.Mex., April 8, 2004.

Castro, SantiagoCastro. "Oral History of Castro". tape recording.saint anthony, Texas, April 1995.

Castro, Santos Perez. "Family Oral History with Santos Castro". tape recording. Corcoran, California, April 12, 1999.

That onefrom ton, Alonso de, João Batista Placa and Fernando Sanchez Zamora.History of the New Lefrom ton, with news from Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Texas;That oneMexico.Monterrey, Mexico, 1961.

(Video) The Yaqui Tribe Working to Preserve Culture and Traditions

Master, Henry. "The Culture and History of the Native American Pueblos of South Texas". Doctor. Doctoral thesis, University of Texas, Austin, 2003.

Opler, Morris. "The use of peyote by the Apache Carrizo and Lipan tribes".american anthropologist40, nº. 2 (1938): 271285.

Opler, Morris.Myths and Legends of the Lipan Apache Indians.Memoir 36 of the American Indian Folklore Society.New York, 1940.

Romero, Daniel Castro, Jr. Interview by Henry Masters. tape recording.saint anthony, Texas, October 5, 2000.

Salinas, Martin.indians thebig RiverDelta: Its Role in the History of South Texas and Northeast Mexico.Austin, Texas, 1990.

Sjöberg, AndréThat oneI. "Lipan Apache Culture in Historical Perspective".Southwestern Journal of Anthropology9, no. 1 (Spring 1953): 7698.

(Video) Chatiks Si Chatiks: The Pawnee People - Culture, History, Affiliations & Spirituality

Stewart, Omer C. “Origin of the Peyote Religion inUSA."Plains-Anthropologist19, FEMALE. 64 (1974): 211223.

Enrique Maestas (2005)


What was the Apache religion and traditions? ›

Traditional Apache religion was based on the belief in the supernatural and the power of nature. Nature explained everything in life for the Apache people. White Painted Woman gave our people their virtues of pleasant life and longevity.

What did the Apache worship? ›

The chief deity of the Chiricahua Apache was Ussen, whose will governed all. Ussen existed before the creation of the universe. He created the first Mother with no parents who sang four times, a sacred number to the Chiricahua Apache.

What spirits did the Apache believe in? ›

Also important are anthropomorphic mountain spirits called gaan who in form and symbolism were no doubt borrowed from the Pueblos. Other important figures in myth are Coyote and Old Man Big Owl. For many Apaches traditional religion has been supplemented or replaced by a variety of Christian sects.

What are 3 interesting facts about the Apache tribe? ›

The Apache are a Native American tribe that have been on this continent since 850 CE. They moved to Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico in 1000 CE. 'Apache' means 'enemy in Zuni'. Ancient Apache spoke Athapaskan, which is very hard for English speakers to pronounce.

What is the culture of Apache? ›

The Apaches were nomadic and lived almost completely off the buffalo. They dressed in buffalo skins and lived in tents made of tanned and greased hides, which they loaded onto dogs when they moved with the herds. They were among the first Indians, after the Pueblos, to learn to ride horses.

What are traditional Apache foods? ›

The Apache diet included a variety of game, berries, and nuts. Game included deer, pronghorn, and rabbits, and often the meat was preserved by drying it into thin sheets of jerky. Piñon nuts and agave— known as mescal (“century plant”), were two of the most important staples. Berries and cactus fruit were eaten raw.

What is the Apache symbol? ›

The sacred symbol for the Apache Indian tribe is the circle or sacred hoop. The hoop, also called Ndee or Dee, is believed to hold sacred powers for protection, healing, life and safety. It is used in Apache ceremonies and is often represented as having four sections.

What animal represents Apache? ›

Apache The sacred bison is sacred to all beings, not just to natives.

What are the Apache colors? ›

The four Sacred colors, black, blue, yellow, and white have guided the Apaches in their prayers to the Great Creator - from the universe to the creations; from night to daylight. The mountain spirits have taught the Apaches to perform the Apache Crown Dance as a means of curing.

What was the Apache tribe most known for? ›

The Apache Tribe is famous for fighting for its land and its fierce warriors. They held off the Spanish, Mexican, and expanding Americans.

What is Apache known for? ›

The Apache tribes fought the invading Spanish and Mexican peoples for centuries. The first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations during the American-Indian wars, the U.S. Army found the Apache to be fierce warriors and skillful strategists.

What does the name Apache mean? ›

Apache, North American Indians who, under such leaders as Cochise, Mangas Coloradas, Geronimo, and Victorio, figured largely in the history of the Southwest during the latter half of the 19th century. Their name is probably derived from a Spanish transliteration of ápachu, the term for “enemy” in Zuñi.

What did the Apache believe about death? ›

Some Southwestern tribes, especially the Apache and Navajo, feared the ghosts of the deceased who were believed to resent the living. The Apache buried corpses swiftly and burned the deceased's house and possessions.

What music did the Apache listen to? ›

Music Of The American Indian: Apache
Crown Dance SongApache
Sunrise Dance SongApache
Sunrise Dance SongApache
Love SongApache
9 more rows

What is the Apache wedding tradition? ›

The Apache have a tradition where the groom will come and live with the bride in a matrilocal fashion. The marriage is traditionally arranged, with the bride's parents assessing the wealth, power, horses and other characteristics of the young man.

What are common Apache last names? ›

Apache Surnames

Cosay - This name was common among Apache who lived on the White Mountain Apache reservation. Dosela - A common Apache last name. Mescal - A common name among people from the Mescalero clan. Tessay - A name given to residents of the White Mountain Apache reservation.

What jewelry did Apache wear? ›

Both Apache men and women wore jewelry such as earrings, necklaces, bracelets and rings. Earrings would often include strands of beads or turquoise or shells. If bracelets were worn they would typically wrap long strands of beads to make the bracelets. Occasionally bracelets would be made of silver.

What did the Apache drink? ›

However, the Apache did share the production of fermented beverages. "Tiswin", also called "tulapai" and lulpi", was produced from fermented corn (Hrdlicka, 1904; LaBarre, 1938; Waddell & Everett, 1980).

How did the Apache wear their hair? ›

The Apache cut their hair each spring in a ceremony to bring success and good health. Men who had long braids or shaved heads often wore artificial roaches; these were made of brightly dyed deer hair or porcupine hair.

What is traditional Apache clothing? ›

The Apache wore clothes that were made mostly from the skins of animals, such as bison or deer. The women wore dresses and the men wore breechcloths and shirts. Decoration of their clothing included beads, feathers, and shells. The Apache also wore moccasins.

What is unique about the Apache? ›

The Apache tribe was a nomadic group, and their lives revolved around the buffalo. They wore buffalo skins, slept in buffalo-hide tents, and ate buffalo for their sustenance. They were one of the first Indian tribes to learn to ride horses, and they quickly began using horses in order to hunt the buffalo.

What is hello in Apache? ›

A: In Eastern Apache, the word for hello is Da'anzho (pronounced dah-ahn-zho). In Western Apache, it is Dagotee (pronounced dah-goh-tay.) Some Western Apache people also use the word Ya'ateh, (pronounced yah-ah-tay), which comes from Navajo, or Aho (pronounced ah-hoh), which is a friendly intertribal greeting.

Who is the white eye in Apache? ›

Koquethagechton was a prominent Lenape leader. He was also known by the English name "White Eyes" -- purportedly, due to his fair complection. Koquethagechton's date of his birth is unknown, but it is estimated to be about 1730.

What is the Apache word for woman? ›

“'Isdzan' is one of the Apache words meaning woman.

Who were the Apache enemies? ›

All through the 1800s, the Apache were at war with other Native Americans and with various settlers. They fought against the Spaniards, the Mexicans, and finally the Americans. One of the most famous Apache leaders was Geronimo, who fought to save his people's land.

Do Apaches get tattoos? ›

While tattooing is commonplace among Apache today, body art and symbology seems to have been largely reserved to mediums like body/face paint within the historic Apache. Other North American tribes, however, were known for their tattooing practices. This includes the Mohawk, the Cree, and the Iroquois, among others.

What are the 4 sacred colors? ›

The four colors (black, white, yellow, and red) embody concepts such as the Four Directions, four seasons, and sacred path of both the sun and human beings. Arrangement of colors vary among the different customs of the Tribes.

What does turquoise mean to Apache? ›

The Apache believe turquoise filled the pot at the end of the rainbow. Zuni ceremonies include turquoise-colored face, mask, and body paint to represent Awonauilona, the sun's life-giving power. Its power is so great that no horseman would ride while carrying turquoise; it would tire the horse.

What is considered disrespectful in Native American culture? ›

Avoid sayings that diminish or disparage Native culture.

As mentioned above, don't say things like “let's have a pow wow,” “lowest person on the totem pole,” “too many chiefs, not enough Indians,” “Indian giver,” “circle the wagons,” etc. These phrases are disrespectful, and we still use them every day.

What race is Apache? ›

The Apache (/əˈpætʃi/) are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Mimbreño, Ndendahe (Bedonkohe or Mogollon and Nednhi or Carrizaleño and Janero), Salinero, Plains (Kataka or Semat or "Kiowa-Apache") and Western ...

What language did Apache speak? ›

The Mescalero-Chiricahua language is a member of the Apachean Branch of the Athabaskan language family. Closely related languages include Navajo (Dine) and Western Apache. More distantly related languages include Plains Apache, Jicarilla and Hupa.

Are Apaches Mexican? ›

The N'dee/N'nee/Ndé, more commonly known as “Apaches”, are the peoples indigenous to the southern United States and northern Mexico.

What great spirit did the Native Americans believe in? ›

The Great Spirit is the concept of a life force, a Supreme Being or god known more specifically as Wakan Tanka in Lakota, Gitche Manitou in Algonquian, and by other, specific names in a number of Native American and First Nations cultures.

What do Apache believe about afterlife? ›

Upon death a soul remains close to home for four days; if a proper funeral and burial is held, the soul is freed to make its way to the Land of Ever Summer, as some call it. There is disagreement about whether reincarnation is possible, although most traditional people believe it is.

What do Apaches believe about death? ›

Navajo and Apache tribes believe that spirits of deceased can haunt the living. The Comanche tribe buries the dead in the place of death or in a cave. Beliefs include reincarnation, where a deceased person returns in the form of another, and Karma.

Who was the Apache spiritual leader? ›

A Chiricahua Apache religious and military leader, Geronimo was born in the 1820s, perhaps near present Clifton, Arizona. His Apache name was Goyahkla (One Who Yawns). He achieved a reputation as a spiritual leader and tenacious fighter against those who threatened his people's ways of life.

What do Native Americans call God? ›

Native Americans are traditionally very spiritual people, and most tribes revere “The Great Spirit”. This is an English translation of The Creator, a deity or “God”.

What is America's only Native spirit? ›

In 1964, a Congressional resolution declared bourbon as America's native spirit. As a result, no other place in the world can produce whiskey and label it as bourbon, making bourbon truly American. Learn more about this national drink and what makes it special.

What is Native American magic called? ›

Powwow, also called Brauche or Braucherei in the Pennsylvania Dutch language, is a vernacular system of North American traditional medicine and folk magic originating in the culture of the Pennsylvania Dutch.

What are some Apache myths? ›

Myths & Legends of the Apache
  • The Governor, Old Woman White Hands.
  • Killing Of The Monsters.
  • The Man Who Helped the Eagles.
  • Origins of the Apache Indians.
  • Releasing the Buffalo.
  • The Supernatural Person in the Lake.

Why did the Apaches scalp their victims? ›

Native Americans in the Southeast took scalps to achieve the status of warrior and to placate the spirits of the dead, while most members of Northeastern tribes valued the taking of captives over scalps. Among Plains Indians scalps were taken for war honours, often from live victims.

Who was the blue eyed Apache? ›

Herman Lehmann (June 5, 1859 – February 2, 1932) was captured as a child by Native Americans.

Who is the most famous Apache? ›

Geronimo (1829-1909) was an Apache leader and medicine man best known for his fearlessness in resisting anyone–Mexican or American—who attempted to remove his people from their tribal lands.


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